Fraunhofer IPK reports research on functionally graded materials in Additive Manufacturing

MaterialsNews
October 27, 2023

October 27, 2023

Fig. 1 Schematic build up strategy of a FGM
Fig. 1 Schematic build up strategy of a FGM

To improve wear properties, the Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology (IPK) in Berlin is researching the Additive Manufacturing of functionally graded materials. This enables components with customised material properties and aims to improve the service life, reports Raphael Marquardt, Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology IPK.

“Conventional armouring for wear or corrosion protection can be produced by laser cladding, causing a discrete change between base and clad. However, especially the thermal working conditions of the coated components can cause cracks between the protective layer and the base material. This can result in splinters of the hard-facing, which can damage the entire machine,” explained Marquardt.

THE WORLD OF METAL AM TO YOUR INBOX
Subscribe to our weekly newsletter
Sign up

“To master this challenge, the Fraunhofer Institute for Production Systems and Design Technology (IPK) is using the possibilities of Additive Manufacturing to improve the bonding between base material and clad. By mixing different powders during the build-up of laser based directed energy deposition (DED), a layered transition can be produced. These so-called Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) enable material properties tailored to the specific requirements of the mechanical component. A schematic representation of the build-up strategy for FGM is shown in Fig. 1,” Marquardt added.

Fig. 2 External view on FGM on build plate (a) and etched cross-section (b)
Fig. 2 External view on FGM on build plate (a) and etched cross-section (b)

“This innovative technology offers a wide range of possible applications, from the entire field of classical mechanical engineering to aerospace. For wear and corrosion protection with FGM, the use of cobalt-chrome alloys as cladding material in the pump industry is an interesting application. For example, the service life of parts in mechanical desalination plants can be extended, improving the sustainability of drinking water production. In the case of full Additive Manufacturing of the components, the environmental footprint can also be reduced as less waste is produced when DED is used instead of traditional machining. This technology can also be used to repair and armour existing components. An example of a FGM fully build with the [laser-based DED] process can be seen in an external view as well as an etched cross-section in Fig. 2.”

Fig. 3 Thin walled turbine geometry
Fig. 3 Thin walled turbine geometry

He concluded, “The complex build-up process of the [laser-based DED] in combination with the material mixing of FGM requires a monitoring solution. To ensure the quality of the FGM produced, the signals from the machine’s integrated sensor can be analysed. In combination with artificial intelligence, the researchers were able to demonstrate a strategy to predicting the quality characteristics of the manufactured components. A trained feed-forward artificial neural network uses features from sensor signals to predict the density of the build job. Analysis of the information captured by the monitoring system also provides important insights into the build-up strategy. For example, the measurements from the working distance sensor can be compared to the initial value to see where the part is building up too much or too little material. This can help optimise process parameters in order to minimise defects and print first time right. The advantage of such an analysis are shown in Fig. 3, where a path planning error can be identified, as it leads to significant overbuild displayed by the orange circle.”

www.ipk.fraunhofer.de

Download Metal AM magazine
MaterialsNews
October 27, 2023

About Metal Additive Manufacturing magazine

Metal AM magazine, published quarterly in digital and print formats, is read by a rapidly expanding international audience.

Our audience includes component manufacturers, end-users, materials and equipment suppliers, analysts, researchers and more.

In addition to providing extensive industry news coverage, Metal AM magazine is known for exclusive, in-depth articles and technical reports.

Our focus is the entire metal AM process from design to application.

Each issue is available as an easy-to-navigate digital edition and a high-quality print publication.

In the latest issue of Metal AM magazine

Download PDF
 

Extensive AM industry news coverage, as well as the following exclusive deep-dive articles:

  • Metal powders in Additive Manufacturing: An exploration of sustainable production, usage and recycling
  • Inside Wayland Additive: How innovation in electron beam PBF is opening new markets for AM
  • An end-to-end production case study: Leveraging data-driven machine learning and autonomous process control in AM
  • Consolidation, competition, and the cost of certification: Insight from New York’s AM Strategies 2024
  • Scandium’s impact on the Additive Manufacturing of aluminium alloys
  • AM for medical implants: An analysis of the impact of powder reuse in Powder Bed Fusion

The world of metal AM to your inbox

Don't miss any new issue of Metal AM magazine, and get the latest industry news. Sign up to our twice weekly newsletter.

Sign up

Looking for AM machines, metal powders or part manufacturing services?

Discover suppliers of these and more in our comprehensive advertisers’ index and buyer’s guide, available in the back of Metal AM magazine.

  • AM machines
  • Process monitoring & calibration
  • Heat treatment & sintering
  • HIP systems & services
  • Pre- & post-processing technology
  • Powders, powder production and analysis
  • Part manufacturers
  • Consulting, training & market data
View online

Discover our magazine archive…

The free to access Metal Additive Manufacturing magazine archive offers unparalleled insight into the world of metal Additive Manufacturing from a commercial and technological perspective through:

  • Reports on visits to leading metal AM part manufacturers and industry suppliers
  • Articles on technology and application trends
  • Information on materials developments
  • Reviews of key technical presentations from the international conference circuit
  • International industry news

All past issues are available to download as free PDFs or view in your browser.

Browse the archive

Share via
Copy link
Powered by Social Snap