WPI receives $25 million award from U.S. Army to develop cold spray AM technique

September 10, 2019

WPI receives $25 million award from U.S. Army to develop cold spray AM technique
Cold spray Additive Manufacturing can be used to perform surface repairs on damaged metal structures (Courtesy Worcester Polytechnic Institute)

Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), Worcester, Massachusetts, USA, has received a three-year, $25 million award from the U.S. Army Combat Capabilities Development Command Army Research Laboratory (CCDC-ARL) to develop cold spray Additive Manufacturing for use in the repair and production of metal parts.

WPI’s cold spray Additive Manufacturing process uses a pressurised gas to accelerate metal powders to near supersonic speeds. The force of impact causes the powders to adhere to the metal build surface. The institute explained that the process can be adapted to work with a portable handheld applicator, making it suitable for use in the military field.

“The army is interested in cold spray 3D printing as a repair technique,” stated Danielle Cote, assistant professor of materials science and engineering and director of WPI’s Center for Materials Processing Data, and the principal investigator for the ARL project. “It’s cheaper to repair a part than to replace it, and you get the equipment back in service faster.”

“The army’s primary interest is unit readiness,” she continued. “If you’re on a mission and need to move quickly to a safer place, and a critical part on your vehicle breaks, you’re stuck unless you can repair it quickly. That’s where cold spray comes in.”

WPI states that its primary research focus will include developing, characterising, and testing new alloys optimised for use in cold spray. Cote explained that the characteristics of the metal powders used in cold spray are important since the metal is not melted before being sprayed onto a part that needs repair, nor heat treated after application. 

Cote added, “With most manufacturing methods, metal alloys are alerted by first being melted, and then often heat treated to strengthen or otherwise improve their properties. With cold spray, what you end up with in the repair is exactly what you start with, so the characteristics of the powders are quite important.”

As part of the research, the institute will reportedly use a variety of equipment, including instruments acquired as part of the new ARL award. These include tools to study the chemical and structural properties of the powders at the scale of nanometers, such as a SEM/EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) unit, a synchronous laser diffraction and dynamic image particle analyser to determine powder morphologies, and nanoindenters to measure nano-scaled mechanical properties.

WPI’s research team plans to work with several subcontractors, including the University of California Irvine, the University of Massachusetts Lowell, Penn State University, and Solvus Global. Among the modifications that are expected to be made to the powders are unique thermal processing treatments, a technique WPI states that it pioneered.

Unlike metals used in other metal manufacturing processing, including casting and forging, the alloys used in cold spray do not have to be capable of being heat treated, which gives the WPI researchers access to a wide range of potential materials. However, the properties of cold spray powders can be fine-tuned with the careful application of heat. 

Cote further added, “This expertise is part of the reason the ARL continues to support WPI. We have discovered that the properties of metal powders can be significantly enhanced with thermal processing, and that is what we are looking to do with this new award.”

As part of the research programme, a team of co-principal investigators from multiple disciplines at WPI will explore some new applications, including the use of cold spray to apply copper coatings to give equipment antibacterial properties. Researchers in WPI’s robotics engineering programme will explore the use of multi-axis robots to automate the cold spray process. 

Cote continued, “The army is especially interested in portable cold spray systems, but the technology can also be used on a larger scale in industry, for example and it will be exciting to see how robots can help expand the use of this and other Additive Manufacturing processes.”

“I think there is much potential for this technique. With the work we will be doing with powder development, in robotics, and in a number of other areas, I think we are going to go a long way with cold spray. There really are endless possibilities,” she concluded.



Download the latest issue of Metal AM magazine

Our latest issue is now available to view online or download in PDF format.

  • View PDF

  • As well as an extensive AM industry news section, this 232-page issue includes articles and reports on:

    • Making the unmakeable: How metal AM is bringing the aerospike rocket engine to life
    • Seurat Technologies: Evolving AM to finally out-compete conventional manufacturing
    • What does a decades old metal powder titan bring to Additive Manufacturing? In conversation with Höganäs AB
    • Innovation to commercialisation: Atherton Bikes and the journey of an SME bringing AM production in house
    • A game of hide and seek with Renishaw and Altair: AI-powered quality assurance on the fly
    • Opening the discussion: How the humble bottle opener demonstrates the importance of requirements in AM
    • Constellium Aheadd® CP1 alloy: Breakthrough productivity in PBF-LB Additive Manufacturing
    • Metal powder characterisation: standards and test methods for consistent quality in AM
    • Euro PM2021: Advances in the processing of nickel alloy 718 and molybdenum by Laser Beam Powder Bed Fusion
    • > More information

    Latest news


      Sign up to our e-newsletter, sent weekly to AM professionals and end-users around the world. We'll also let you know each time a new issue of Metal AM magazine is available.

      Discover our magazine archive…

      The free to access Metal Additive Manufacturing magazine archive offers unparalleled insight into the world of metal Additive Manufacturing from a commercial and technological perspective through:
      • Reports on visits to leading metal AM part manufacturers and industry suppliers
      • Articles on technology and application trends
      • Information on materials developments
      • Reviews of key technical presentations from the international conference circuit
      • International industry news
      All past issues are available to download in PDF format, in either single page format or as double-page “spreads” for viewing on large monitors. All downloads are free of charge. Go to archive...

      Connect with us

      Visit our social media channels and sign up to our e-newsletter

      Copy link
      Powered by Social Snap